About Web Portal

This web portal provides space-based observations and maps on natural resources and environment around Haridwar, the site for Kumbh Mela - 2021. The data and information presented in this portal are taken from various sources. Weather and climate related information provided here is based on scientific models (experimental outputs) only.

Satellite Data Visualization

Visualization (2D and 3D) of satellite data obtained from various satellites (Resourcesat, Cartosat-1, Cartosat-2, Cartosat-3, Sentinel-2, etc.) are provided as information service.

Land/Water/Bio-Resources Information

Land Cover, Forest Type, Vegetation Type, Biological Richness, Urban Settlement, Water Turbidity maps are provided as information service.

Weather & Air Quality Information

Daily experimental data and information on Temperature, Relative Humidity, Fog, Rainfall, Air Quality Index, NO2 Status, CO Status, etc. derived from satellite observations and models are provided as information service.

About Kumbh Mela

The Kumbh Mela is a meeting of mystical minds, where millions of people gather at one place. Its origin is ascribed to the 8th century philosopher Shankara, who instituted regular gatherings of learned ascetics for discussion and debate. The term Kumbh comes from the mythic pot (kumbha) of elixir produced by churning of the milky ocean by the gods and demons. It is celebrated four times over the span of 12 years at four places in India, where the drops of elixir fell during the struggle between gods and demons. These places are: (1) Haridwar (Uttarakhand) situated on the banks of Ganges River, (2) Ujjain (Madhya Pradesh) situated on the banks of Shipra River, (3) Nashik (Maharashtra) on the banks of Godavari River, and (4) Prayagraj (Uttar Pradesh) situated at the confluence of the Ganges, the Yamuna and the mythical Sarasvati rivers. In recognition of its importance, in December 2017, UNESCO included the Kumbh Mela on its Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity list (content source: https://www.britannica.com/topic/Kumbh-Mela)

The Kumbh Mela is celebrated at Haridwar when Jupiter completes its cycle through 12 zodiac signs and enters again the Aquarius sign with Sun entering the Aries sign. This year, the likely dates of Kumbh Mela at Haridwar are from 27th February to 30th April 2021. There are six auspicious days: Magh Purnima (27th February), Mahashivratri (11th March) Somvati Amavasya (12th April), Baisakhi (14th April), Ram Navmi (21st April), and Chaitra Purnima (27th April). The important bathing (Shahi Snan) dates are: 11th March, 12th April, 14th April and 27th April read more..


About IIRS

The Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS) is a constituent Unit of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Department of Space, Government of India. Since its establishment in 1966, IIRS is a key player for training and capacity building in geospatial technology and its applications in Southeast Asia. Training, education and capacity building programmes of the Institute are designed to meet the requirements of professionals at different levels, including mid-career professionals, decision makers, researchers, fresh graduates and academia.


About ISRO

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), functioning under the Department of Space of Government of India, is the primary agency for carrying out space related activities in the country. With the vision of “Harnessing space technology for national development,” its broad objectives include: Design, Development and Realisation of Space Transportation Systems, Space Infrastructure (including spacecraft for Earth Observation, Communication, Navigation, Space Science, Planetary Exploration and associated ground segment) and Space Applications for Societal Development; Capacity Building; Promotion of Space Technology; and International Cooperation.


This web portal provides space-based observations and maps on natural resources and environment around Haridwar, the site for Kumbh Mela – 2021.

Satellite images are images of Earth or any other planetary body captured by the sensors deployed in a satellite. The satellite images are captured by Remote Sensing Satellites, either in polar or geostationary orbit.

Cartosat is a cartographic satellite developed by ISRO. This satellite provides the high-resolution satellite images for cartographic applications.

Resourcesat is the name of a series of Remote Sensing satellites (Resourcesat-1, 2 and 2A) intended for resource monitoring. These satellites are designed, developed and launched by ISRO. There are three payloads in these satellites. The first payload is high-resolution Linear Imaging Self-Scanning sensor (LISS)-IV camera operating in three spectral bands in the Visible and Near Infrared Region (VNIR) with 5.8 m spatial resolution and steerable up to ± 26 deg across track to achieve a five-day revisit capability. The second payload is the medium-resolution LISS-3 camera operating in three-spectral bands in VNIR and one in Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) band with 23.5 m spatial resolution. The third payload is a coarse resolution Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) camera operating in three spectral bands in VNIR and one band in SWIR with 56 m spatial resolution.

Sentinel-2 is an Earth Observation (EO) satellite remote sensing mission from European Space Agency (ESA) under the Copernicus Programme that systematically acquires optical images of Earth at high spatial resolution (10 m to 60 m). The mission is a constellation of two polar-orbiting satellites (i.e. Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B).

Sentinel-5P (P stands for Precursor) mission is the satellite remote sensing mission from European Space Agency (ESA) under the Copernicus Programme, launched on 13 October 2017, for monitoring the atmosphere with high spatio-temporal resolution. The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) is used for atmospheric observations.

Turbidity map shows the relative clarity of water derived from satellite images. Turbidity is an optical characteristic of fluid and depends on the concentration of suspended particles in the water. It is measured based on the proportion of scattered light by the material in the fluid to the incident light. More is the turbidity, more hazy will be the fluid.

The weather and air quality parameters shown in this portal for visualisation purpose are based on satellite observations and (experimental) model-forecasts. The data are taken from (1) ISRO’s MOSDAC portal (https://mosdac.gov.in), (2) ISRO’s Air Quality portal (https://airquality.iirs.gov.in), and (3) Sentinel-5P (satellite of European Space Agency, ESA) derived products.

The portal shows the major stream network around Haridwar and water turbidity derived from satellite images. Major stream network is mapped based on visual interpretation of optical satellite images. The water turbidity is derived from Sentinel-2 satellite data on cloud-free days.

Following information is provided under land resources: (1) Land Cover map of 2015-16 (source: ISRO’s Bhuvan portal); (2) Built-up area around Haridwar for the years 2000, 2010 and 2020; (3) Forest Type map; and (4) Biological Richness. The data/maps shown in this portal are derived from satellite images (of different spatial resolutions/ scale) as part of different projects and studies carried out by ISRO in partnership with other institutions.

Base maps are the maps available from different online mapping services. These maps can be overlaid as background layer for enhanced map visualization.

The Mobile Application is developed for citizen services. It shows the near-real time information related to weather and air quality. This information is derived from scientific modes under R&D activities at ISRO.

The temporal changes can be visualised using “Swiping” and “Layer Transparency” tools available in the “Data Viewer” of the portal. Both the tools are accessible by using “Right click” on layer name in “Map Layer” panel which is available at right hand side of the map window.

The Web portal is developed by Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), ISRO, Department of Space, Government of India, Dehradun.

Data Sources & Important Links